High quality water is becoming more scarce and more expensive across the world, which is leading to more private initiatives to treat water. Supplying the needs of cities as well as industrial, commercial and domestic use is a vital role for water treatment engineering.
The technologies and available methods used are coagulation, ball-integration, simple or lamellar settling, pressurized or gravity sand filtration or slow sand filtration for enchancing clarity of the turbid and humic water; ion exchange for raw water treatment, reverse osmosis system for salinty removal, biological treatment, chlorination, adsorption, ozonation and UV for disinfection.
Adding certain chemicals to water can modify suspended solids and colloidal material, which will not precipitate on its own, causing "Flocs" to groq in size and precipitate more easily.
After coagulation of the flocs tend to accrete or bind together into larger flocs. This can be assisted by slow mixing either mechanically or with air bubbles or hydraulic mixing.
Finally any flocs or particles which have not settled out under gravity can be removed by filtration leading to a high quality water source.