Water softening process is depending on ion-exchange method. The water to be treated passes through a bed of usually Na for cationic resin which sodium (Na) ions exchange with divalent calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) ions which are generating hardness to water.
After a certain flow, the resins become loaded with undesirable calcium and magnesium ions and resin gradually loses the effectiveness then must be regenerated. Regeneration is effected by passing concentrated brine through the colomn to remove calcium and magnesium ions. Most of the salts that are used for regeneration fet flushed out of the system and usually released to drain line. These processes have been researched and deemed to have no negative environmental impact upon soil.
Water softener systems has two option.
1) Single Type Water Softener Systems :
In selection of single type softening devices, first the total water flow to be purified should be determined, then the amount of resin should be calculated according to the flow rate. However, when regeneration time comes, soft water production is not obtained since these type of systems work accourding to time. When regeneration time ends, system puts itself in operation again.
2) Tandem Type Water Softener Systems :
One of the most importand advantages of tandem type systems compared to single type systems, one colomn produces soft water while other colomn is at regeneration period and no interruption occurs.
Modern technology by diminishing the need for human intervention to zero, has manufactured self-regeneration system which operate with automatic valve system.
Surface piping system consisting of pneumatic or electric actuator controlld valves are used for industrial type filters. The regeneration period can be controlled according to flow, time or hardness control. The system is able to returtn again to service mode automatically after the regeneration process. The control of the system is provided by a PLC and 65.000 colored TFT touch screen is used as the operator control panel.